Re: what are the causes of a raw and sore tongue
I believe that the common suspects are thrush (white looking yeast infection), gingivitus, bacterial or viral infections, and autoimmune disorders.
It could also be irritation from a broken tooth or filling, or from something you ate, such as caramel popcorn, hard candy, or sucking on lozenges. If you ate something that got stuck in your teeth, you might use your tongue to try to get it out, without even thinking about it.
I got three really bad mouth infections in one year. It started with an irritated tongue, and then I got mouth sores on the sides and back of my mouth. I couldn't even talk with the last two. I never got a definitive answer as to what caused it. They even tested me for Lupus. It was a particularly stressful year for me at work, and I haven't had another one since I quit that job. Maybe it was something in the building, or the stress lowered my resistance.
One of the infections started after I used a tongue scraper. I suspect that I was already getting a sinus infection. I think the tongue scraper released bacteria (or whatever it was) into my mouth and my whole system. I'll never use a tongue scraper again.
With one, the doctor gave me Diflucan (for yeast), which made me very sick all over. The mouth got much worse, my throat closed up, and my digestive system went berserk. My heart was racing so fast, I thought I'd pass out. I don't think I ever felt worse. I don't know if it was an allergic reaction per se, but Diflucan is listed in my medical charts as something I'm allergic to.
The doctor gave me a topical lotion that numbed my mouth, and it reduced the pain until it went away.