Welcome to the board.
I would guess that your quad pain is most definitely associated with the herniated disc. This is a very common symptom, sometimes the only one a person has. My husband is a runner. I can recall that 15 years ago for about 4 months, I would catch him rubbing his quad, or he would mention that he guessed he'd pulled a muscle. He had no other pains or symptoms until the morning of Christmas Eve when he woke up and could not get out of bed. I'll spare you all the details but it turned out to be a ruptured disc.
What happens is that if the disc is bulging, it often presses up against the nerve root. The location of the referred pain often will tell the doctor which disc is giving you the problem. I'm guessing in your case it is most likely L4 or L5. These nerve roots exit in the lower back and bundle together with the sciatic nerves where they go across part of the buttocks, and down the back of the leg into the feet.
If you want to give your herniated disc a chance of healing, you need to avoid any activities that involve bending, twisting or lifting anything heavier than a gallon of milk. Try to avoid exercise for about 6 weeks to give it a chance to heal. Also avoid anything where you are bending your back backwards in extension. Do not sleep on your stomach. Put a pillow under your knees when on your back, and between your knees when on your side, so your top hip is level with your shoulder. Use ice for 20 minutes at a time on your lower back (where the disc is located -- below your waist). Take anti-inflammatories like advil or aleve.
I think the doc said it was "non-surgical" because surgery is never the first choice for a herniated disc. They will always try conservative measures first, things like physical therapy, epidural injections, rest, etc. What I think your doc meant was that you were not a candidate for surgery at the time.
Congrats on the weight loss. That is terrific! I find activities like housework and gardening are about the two worst things for me...again, the bending and lifting thing.
If you really baby your back at this point, you may be able to avoid surgery in the future. It is worth making the effort.
Good luck, and keep posting with your questions.