Re: nodule in bladder
I had a bladder tumor removed in 2005, and I still have cystoscopies once a year. Cystoscopies are uncomfortable, but I don't think they're really painful, although they're definitely a bit more uncomfortable for men than women due to the length of the urethra. If it's a quick peek in the office, you probably won't have any discomfort once it's over.
On the other hand, if it's a very complete look under anesthesia, or if a polyp needs to be removed, you can have some pretty severe bladder spasms when you wake up. There's a medication called pyridium which should be given immediately upon awakening and possibly for a day or two afterwards to prevent the spasms and any burning sensation. I did need the pyridium after the bladder tumor was removed, and after the first cystoscopy post-surgery (6 months, under anesthesia)...but I haven't needed it at after the in-office cystoscopies.