If you do not feel better after talking with your dentist, I would get a second and maybe even a third consultation with another dentist to be sure. The earlier you can diagnose a problem with a dentist, the earlier you can fix it, and the better a chance you have of preventing any kind of treatments you don't want (such as dentures) in the long run.
For chipped teeth, you -could- get veneers (the basic idea is they put a thin piece of material over your teeth) however, they are fairly expensive. Depending on how badly decayed/chipped they are, you could get I believe a crown or even a bridge, but it sounds to me like it's not too bad.
As for the slightly transparent teeth, maybe it is caused by smoking. Perhaps whitening your teeth would help? (Smoking does stain.) If there isn't any pain associated with it, and the gums around it are healthy, I think it's fairly normal.
I don't think there is anything too much too worry about
I hope this helps.