Re: could it be dyslexia
There are varied degrees of dyslexia.
I was diagnosed with a mild case in first grade and able to overcome it with training and awareness. These are the main symptoms to look for along with some of the ways they test for it:
* Difficulty learning and remembering printed words - (Have the child read the sentence to in silence then repeat it back to you. Then read a different sentence allowed and repeat it back to you. Dyslexia would make the silent reading recall harder and more inaccurate than the orated readign recall.)
* Letter reversal (b for d, p for q)-(Pb and Pd still get me and I am a MS degree Chemist, have the child read the periodic chart and make not of any inversions.. expecially between Pb - Lead and Pd - Palladium), number reversals (6 for 9) or numbers (12 for 21) [call out number series with 6 and 9 in the and have the child right down what they hear, check for inverted 6 and 9 and the 12 for 21, 13 for 31 switches], and changed order of letters in words (tar for rat, quite for quiet [quit, quite, quiet... ugh! those are biggies for me and just tacking e's on the ends of some words as well.])
* Leaving out or inserting words while reading - [How do you test for this? Get them to read out loud a passage that you have a copy of.. record the recitation and compare it to the actual passage.]
* Confusing vowel sounds or substituting one consonant for another - This will come out in the oral reading as well.. most commonly over looked as an error in pronouciation.
* Persistent spelling errors - [I love spell checkers and computers they really help with this over site, look for repeatitive spelling errors on common words. Some words are harder than others to remember and spell correctly, I can not remember the word list I was giving].
* Difficulty writing - [This stems from the omission and insertion of extra words and the chronic misspelling of words. I always have to go over my stuff 5 - 6 times and then errors still happen.]
Other characteristics sometimes include:
* Delayed or inadequate speech - stuttering, the chronic um, ah, eh.. speech interruptions as one trys to formulate the proper thoughts for vocalization. Public speaking classes are a blessing at addressing this behavior to some degree.
* Trouble picking the right word to fit the meaning desired when speaking - delayed reaction time with oral responses.
* Problems with direction (up and down and left and right) and time (before and after, yesterday and tomorrow).. you will note frequent mistakes or lengthened time lags to answer which way are we turning and so forth and so on when asked directional and temporal questions.
A psychologist tends to be the one necessary to diagnosis dislexia. They are trained in the techniques for identifying this disorder. Once identified there are techniques and studying methods that can be learned to improve matters. You have to train your mind to process in a different manner. Speech and reading therapy is often required. It is much easier to over come when you learn the techniques early and the disorder is recognized quickly.
If we learn by our mistakes, I am working on one hell of an education.