Re: male vs female strength
I think it's heavily reliant on genetics, weight, size, and training. Of course the testosterone gap comes into play, but I know several women that can bench their weight (not on steroids) and several men that cannot. The muscle tissue itself isn't different, but the hormonal regulation is, so it is easier for men to increase mass specifically and strength generally.
I don't think I've ever heard of a specific, scientific formula for the strength differences between men and women/ upper and lower body. Too many variables.
Keep your body lean, your blood clean and your mind sharp. -Rollins