Originally Posted by Lenin
In a physiological setting, sudden reduction in ventricular dimensions at the start of systole creates pericardial depression which drives venous return, and the atria fill by anterograde systolic acceleration of the vena caval flow. The ventricle dilates on diastole and the ventricular depression thus created aspirates the blood of the atrium towards the ventricle (E-wave of rapid filling), but also from the vena cavae towards the atrium, inducing anterograde diastolic acceleration of caval flow. At end-diastole, atrial systole completes ventricular filling (A-wave).
What is the format of E-wave and A-wave? As stated in my prior post EKG wave forms are labeled "P" to "U" and deals with various segments (interval) and the relationship to their output to a vertical axis (Mv) and the co-relation to time expressed on the horizontal axis in msec. I don't know of any subset of E-A wave to the entire wave pattern displayed with an EKG.
For completeness the following:
Normal adult 12-lead ECG
The diagnosis of the normal electrocardiogram is made by excluding any recognised abnormality. It's description is therefore quite lengthy.
normal sinus rhythm
each P wave is followed by a QRS
P waves normal for the subject
P wave rate 60 - 100 bpm with <10% variation
rate <60 = sinus bradycardia
rate >100 = sinus tachycardia
variation >10% = sinus arrhythmia
normal QRS axis
normal P waves
height < 2.5 mm in lead II
width < 0.11 s in lead II for abnormal P waves see right atrial hypertrophy, left atrial hypertrophy, atrial premature beat, hyperkalaemia
(nothing about E-A wave!)
0.12 to 0.20 s (3 - 5 small squares)
for short PR
segment consider Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome (other causes - Duchenne muscular dystrophy, type II glycogen storage disease (Pompe's), HOCM)
for long PR
interval see first degree heart block and 'trifasicular' block
normal QRS complex
< 0.12 s duration (3 small squares)
for abnormally wide QRS consider right or left bundle branch block, ventricular rhythm, hyperkalaemia, etc.
no pathological Q waves
no evidence of left or right ventricular hypertrophy
normal QT interval
Calculate the corrected QT interval (QTc) by dividing the QT interval by the square root of the preceeding R - R interval. Normal = 0.42 s.
Causes of long QT interval
myocardial infarction, myocarditis, diffuse myocardial disease
subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage
drugs (e.g. sotalol, amiodarone)
Romano Ward syndrome (autosomal dominant)
Jervill + Lange Nielson syndrome (autosomal recessive) associated with sensorineural deafness
normal ST segment
no elevation or depression
causes of elevation include acute MI (e.g. anterior, inferior), left bundle branch block, normal variants (e.g. athletic heart, Edeiken pattern, high-take off), acute pericarditis
causes of depression include myocardial ischaemia, digoxin effect, ventricular hypertrophy, acute posterior MI, pulmonary embolus, left bundle branch block
normal T wave
causes of tall T waves include hyperkalaemia, hyperacute myocardial infarction and left bundle branch block
causes of small, flattened or inverted T waves are numerous and include ischaemia, age, race, hyperventilation, anxiety, drinking iced water, drugs, (e.g. digoxin), pericarditis, PE, intraventricular conduction delay (e.g. RBBB)and electrolyte disturbance.
Everything you wanted to know about EKG