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  • what do smoking and alcoholism have to do with osteoporose?

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    Old 06-18-2004, 12:43 AM   #1
    justme_
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    what do smoking and alcoholism have to do with osteoporose?

    how do they increase your chances of getting it?

     
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    Old 07-29-2004, 05:41 PM   #2
    Kaitrin
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    Re: what do smoking and alcoholism have to do with osteoporose?

    I found this on the New York State Dept of Health website:

    The biological mechanism that results in greater bone loss among smokers is unclear. Although smokers are thinner and may tend to exercise less, females who smoke also experience an earlier menopause which results in a longer time period of bone loss. All of these factors are associated with lower bone density.

    The effects of smoking on bone appear to be cumulative and currently cannot be detected until after menopause in women or after age 60 in men. Cigarette smoking also shows a dose-response relationship to bone health, with heavier smokers having lower bone density and a higher risk for fracture.

    The age-related bone loss that occurs in both men and women in their 50s also appear to be accelerated among smokers. Bone loss occurs rapidly in women at menopause when the bone protective hormone estrogen decreases rapidly. Smoking increases this process. Smoking will also decrease the effectiveness of hormone replacement therapy.

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    I'll see if I can find something about the alcoholism part....

     
    Old 07-29-2004, 05:44 PM   #3
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    Re: what do smoking and alcoholism have to do with osteoporose?

    This is from the NIH website:

    Alcohol disrupts calcium balance in many ways. To begin with, alcohol exposure increases PTH levels. In cases of chronic alcohol abuse, blood levels of parathyroid hormone can remain elevated, resulting in a strain on the body's calcium reserves. In alcoholics, continuous elevations in parathyroid hormone can precipitate the condition known as secondary hyperparathyroidism, the effects of which further deplete calcium stores.

    Alcohol can inhibit the production of enzymes found in the liver and kidney that convert the inactive form of vitamin D to its active form. This interference in vitamin D metabolism results in an impairment of calcium absorption. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia, a bone condition associated with pain, fractures and deformity. Alcohol also increases magnesium excretion, an effect that can further negatively impact bone health.

    Alcohol, Hormones, and Other Metabolic Effects

    Chronic heavy drinking can result in hormonal deficiencies in both men and women. Alcoholic men tend to produce less testosterone, a hormone known for its positive effect on bone density. Low testosterone levels have been linked to decreased activity of osteoblasts, the cells that stimulate bone formation.

    In pre-menopausal women, chronic alcohol exposure can result in irregular menstrual cycles, an occurrence that increases osteoporosis risk.

    Alcoholics have been shown to have high levels of cortisol, a corticosteroid. Excessive levels of cortisol have been linked to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. Corticosteroids impair calcium absorption which leads to an increase in PTH secretion, which can result in further bone loss.

    Bone loss is evident in a large number of individuals that drink heavily. Alcohol appears to have a direct toxic effect on osteoblasts, suppressing bone formation.

     
    Old 08-13-2004, 05:26 AM   #4
    justme_
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    Re: what do smoking and alcoholism have to do with osteoporose?

    Thanks. This has been very useful information.

     
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