Quote from brainf0g:Dependency and addiction are two completely different issues. Both go through a withdrawl, but the person with the addiction gene cannot stop thinking about the "drug of choice". Even after they're completely detoxed.
Having withdrawls doesn't mean addiction. Addiction is defined by consequences.
People abused as children have a higher chance of becoming abusers themselves, not because it's learned per se, but because they are affected by this abusive environment during "critical periods" of early development. The way they are affected during these critical periods becomes part of their actual biology.
Therapy can 'fix' this somewhat, but once it's "hard-wired", you're looking at no less than a decade of work to "rewire" these connections as an adult. It isn't a matter of just unlearning behaviors, it's part of your brain's biology.
AD/HD is a biological disorder and can be diagnosed biologically, like I've told you before via SPECT scans.
People with AD/HD have an abundance of Dopamine Transporters compared to someone with a "normal" brain. These additional transporters ADDers have, reuptake dopamine within the synapse, leaving a less than sufficient level for cell communication.
In a basic sense, Ritalin doesn't stimulate the release of dopamine, like Adderall. This is the reason Methylphenidate isn't dangerous like amphetamines *can* be in high doses. Ritalin binds to dopamine transporter proteins, thus blocking the reuptake of the brain's normally released Dopamine in the synapse. This 'naturally' leaves more Dopamine readily available.
Amphetamines can be dangerous if they 'excite' the brain to release more Dopamine than their "threshold". If this happens, free radicals can form and brain damage sets in. This is why antioxidants are key with people taking questionable doses of amphetamines. The limbic system is particularly damaged in high doses of amphetamines. This is why depression is prominent with methamphetamine abusers.
Well, at least you know the difference between addiction and dependancy. Lord, the doctors that told me I couldn't be in withdrawals because I wasn't addicted!!! Now, they surely can't be that dumb, they were all board-certified at a top establishment in our area. I think they either were that brain dead, or were given misleading info from drug reps, or simply in denial. Perhaps they believed addiction and dependancy were not separate issues. Perhaps they believe in fairies and goblins too....
I get you on the whole re-uptake thing vs. releasing thing.....yes, no doubt the amphetamines are worse, but re-uptake bothers me too, from what I've learned about it. Reuptake interfers with what is normal metabolism of these chemicals...I'm also referring to AD's and serotonin too. This can cause adverse effects and wear out the receptors, so to speak, over time. The new research on AD's found a damaged serotoinin system from the reuptake serotoin drugs, the SSRis' in rat studies. I know we are different than rats, but those are the same rats that we found got cancer from cigarettes(well, not those exact rats, literally; their heirs perhaps :D )
So if reuptake from SSRi's can damage serotonin receptors after long term use, what about reuptake of other receptors, like dopamine? I think it's worth a thought, you know?
Those brain scans are a good idea, but I still think since all brains are not alike, as in we don't have the same fingerprints, it doesn't prove disease. Large groups of people obviously have this "defect" in common, but there is no proof it's a defect or disease, but rather a different response to learning stimulus. Also, brain chemicals are constantly changing due to growth, food, outside factors, sleep, necessary processing for body functions, etc.
Lots of ADD kids have high IQ's and when they are stimulated correctly, without drugs(tutors, different learning method,etc) they respond. I typed in Visual Spatial Learners and found a whole other view on ADD.
The drugs they give for ADD are questionable, in health and mind's well-being, causing OCD, mood-swings, aggression, sleep problems, stomach aches and fatigue. I know because my nephew was taken off Adderall
, then Strattera, for such problems. Off the drugs, he no longer has such symptoms. And a new teacher, a new year brought him a better school year, without drugs....go figure.
So we still do not agree on most things, here, however it was refreshing to hear someone clearly have a hold on the whole addiction/dependancy thing and well put by you... :)